Antibodies, also known as antibodies, are special substances made by living creatures. They play a very important role in the body. It is true that there are many different kinds of cells and tissues in the human body. There are about 10 trillion of them. However, most of them don’t play any role whatsoever in defending the body against diseases and infections. They are called the white blood cells. The white blood cells form two classes: 1) the B-cells and 2) the T-cells. These two classes are known for their role in defending the body against various types of pathogens. For example, the B-cells produce antibodies that target certain antigens that are found on the Assay Kits for research laoratories surface of bacteria. After the B-cells produce antibodies, they release them into the bloodstream. The T-cells are lymphocytes. They are activated by antigens on bacterial cell surfaces and inactivate the microbes. The white blood cells play a vital role in fighting infection and disease. They recognize and destroy invading foreign materials such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. They also identify and neutralize abnormal proteins which have invaded the body. The body produces antibodies when foreign proteins are present in the body. The antibodies fight against these invaders. The immune system has many parts. In biology, antibodies are the immune system’s main defense against pathogens. Each of the human beings has two kinds of antibodies: complementary determining region (CDR) and variable domain. A CDR is a sequence of amino acids that determines which protein part of an antigen molecule a specific antibody binds to. An antibody is a Y-shaped protein consisting of four polypeptide chains. One of the chains consists of a CDR. There are two kinds of antibodies: polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies. A polyclonal antibody is made by injecting an animal with a pathogen (virus, bacterium, or prion) and collecting blood to make a serum. Polyclonal antibodies can have a lower specificity and affinity than monoclonal antibodies. Antibodies that have been produced in the laboratory and contain only the VH and VL domains (or scFv) are called recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Each VH domain has a specific function while the VL domain interacts with the antigen. Antibodies are extremely useful in science as they can be used to diagnose diseases and infections.
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